Following the war, Iraq was under pressure to pay off high-interest, short-term debts to Western creditors estimated between 35-45 billion.
According to one document on MFA letterhead, the MFA transferred two known IIS agents to its embassy in manual de puestos de Belarus under pseudonyms in June 2002.There is conflicting evidence that suggests M16 did procure banned items for its labs through illicit channels.Some companies, particularly the French, refused to pay the surcharge.In November 1997, Saddam approved a MIC proposal to enlist the IIS to develop new procurement, technology transfer, and technical assistance channels to supplement the existing MIC Commercial Directorate channels, according to a source with direct access.These sources appear to be of good quality and consistent with other pre- and post-Operation Iraqi Freedom information.The SES and Lama companies are two of the major holding companies for Al-Bashair goods in Syria.This trade also included the sale of gyroscopes and accelerometer testing stages.It is the oxidizer for a solid propellant and constitutes over half of the propellants weight.Benon Sevans Use of Iraqi Oil Vouchers At the center of the day-to-day operations of the UNs 64 billion OFF program, Sevan who spent his entire career at the UN, received oil allocations through various companies that he recommended to the Iraqi government.Al-Rashid was instrumental in missile development prior to the Gulf war and in the years that followed.Numerous Iraqi and foreign trade intermediaries disguised illicit items, hid the identity of the end user, obtained false end-user certificates, and/or changed the final destination of the commodity to get it to the region.
The letter, dated, from Saddam Zayn Hasan, the executive manager of somo, and addressed to Amir Muhammad Rashid Tikriti Al Ubaydi, then the Iraqi Oil Minister implicates Muwafiq Ayyub in playing a role in setting up the deal.
From 2001 until the fall of Baghdad, goods were smuggled out of Russia by Iraqi Embassy personnel.
Just prior to March 2003, he traveled to Sweden and Ukraine on behalf of Qusay.The UN contracted two private companies from 1996 to 2003 (Lloyds Register and later a Swiss company called Cotecna) to authenticate and certify the arrival of humanitarian supplies under the UN OFF Program at three land border points.Other documents dated 2002 reveal contracts to obtain vacuum furnaces manufactured in Russia.Ghazar sought to assure his Iraqi clients that his Pakistani company was fully prepared to handle this sensitive project and any future requests for other Iraqi customers.The Iraqi economy also suffered under UN sanctions during this period as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita fell from 2304 in 1989 to an estimated 495 in 1918.104.22.1681 Government of Namibia.0.123 Government of Yemen.0.713 Sukarnoputri Megawati, President of Indonesia Iraqi documents list President Megawati as a recipient of oil allocations.In March 1998, Iraqi intelligence conducted an operation to smuggle weapons and military equipment from Romania in violation of UN sanctions, according to a reliable source.The team identified that three of these machines possessed a computer-controlled turntable.In the 1996 to 2000 period, Iraqs GDP increased from.6 billion to 33 billion.The contract would specify that the goods shipped would be first-quality merchandise.Some money exchangers mark their currency for identification purposes and to assist in the prevention of counterfeiting.Typically, Iraqi military units identified requirements and forwarded them up the chain of the command to the directorate head.
From 1996 until the fall of the Regime, Mahmud Rashid Ismail Al-Ani served as the Director of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering in the RG and the chief procurement adviser to both the RG and SRG.
Because of the economic constraints following the war with Iran (see Economics Section it became difficult for the Regime to draft and adhere to an accurate budget.